In pre-modern times judicial institutions would preside over private, civil, and public matters on the basis of Islamic legal code. In the earliest times Judges would rule based on their own personal interpretation. By the 11th century Judicial institutions created a more concrete universalized system based on the 4 central Islamic schools and their major methodologies for interpretation of the Sunnah and the Quran.
However, by the nineteenth century Islamic Law began to change once again because of the overarching hatred for western imperialistic regimes. There was often unequal treatment of non-Muslims and major political changes were occurring on both an economic and social level. As imperialistic regimes continued to take over Muslim countries Shariah courts continued to lose more power until they really only presided over personal legal matters.